Sensory Qualities, Nutritional Properties and Glycaemic Indices of Biscuits Produced from Processed Fonio Millet Flour


  • Kate E. Nwokocha Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
  • Ganiyu Oboh Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals and Phytomedicine Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA). P.M.B. 704, Akure 340001, Nigeria
  • Ayokunle O. Ademosun Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals and Phytomedicine Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Federa
  • Stephen A. Adefegha Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals and Phytomedicine Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA). P.M.B. 704, Akure 340001, Nigeria
  • Afolabi A. Akindahunsi Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals and Phytomedicine Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA). P.M.B. 704, Akure 340001, Nigeria


glycaemic index, amylopectin, amylose, Biscuits, Fonio millet


Fonio millet is commonly consumed in different forms as food and is often eaten by diabetic patients without full scientific basis for its consumption. This work examined the outcome of processing on the sensory qualities, nutritional properties and glycaemic indices of Fonio millet flour. Fonio millet grains were pulverized into flour (raw flour). A portion of the Fonio millet grains were subjected to roasting and subsequently milled (roasted flour), while the other portion was subjected to fermentation (fermented flour) prior to biscuit production. The flours were rich in carbohydrate and protein but low in fat, ash and fibre, and these exhibited significant different (p<0.05). The sensory, nutritional, and glycaemic qualities of the biscuits prepared were determined. The sensory evaluation showed a significant difference (p< 0.05) in the colour, taste, texture, and general acceptability, while there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the aroma of the biscuits when compared with the control. The proximate composition of the biscuits revealed that there was a significant difference (p< 0.05) in the percentage of moisture, fat, crude fibre, and ash content of the biscuits. The result showed that the biscuits produced had low amylose, sugar, and glycaemic index. This indicates that Fonio millet grain flour can be used in biscuit production as a healthier substitute for wheat flour in the production of health-promoting and disease-preventing snacks.


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How to Cite

Nwokocha, K. E., Oboh, G., Ademosun, A. O., Adefegha, S. A., & Akindahunsi, A. A. (2024). Sensory Qualities, Nutritional Properties and Glycaemic Indices of Biscuits Produced from Processed Fonio Millet Flour: Tropical Journal of Phytochemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(1), 124–130. Retrieved from